COTTON

INTRODUCTION
  • Cotton is a member of the Malvaceae family, and its scientific name is Gossypium.
  • Cotton is a plant that demands a long period of frost-free weather, as well as a lot of heat and light.
  • It prefers a hot, humid climate.
  • We will not have numerous rainfalls during the maturing (summer) and harvesting days in order to successfully cultivate cotton plants (during autumn).
REQUIREMENTS

•Soil- Alluvial, clayey and red sandy loam.

•Temperature- Daily air temperature =15 degrees C (60° F) for germination.

                        Vegetative growth =21-27 degrees C (70-80°F).

                         Fruiting period=27-32 degrees C (80-90° F).

•Cultivation- The major soil types suitable for cotton cultivation are alluvial, clayey, and red sandy loam. Cotton is grown both under irrigated and rain-fed conditions.

•pH- 5.8 to 8.0.

•Rainfall- It requires at least 500 mm of mean annual rainfall with uniform distribution.

•Susceptibility- They are susceptible to pests.

IRRIGATION
  • It will take 20-25 cm to produce a square.
  • Cotton requires 20-25 cm of water from squaring to first blooming.
  • During boll development, the remaining 10-20 cm is necessary.
  • Cotton crops require a total of 50-70 cm of water.
  • Cotton's growth and output are severely hampered by moisture stress at critical times.
  • Moisture stress during boll development will not only limit output but also have a significant impact on fiber quality.
  • In comparison to regular watering, when the number of irrigations is reduced, the root development is deeper, allowing moisture to be absorbed from deeper levels.
  • During flowering, the crop is vulnerable to moisture stress.
CULTIVATION
  • Cotton cultivation necessitates a long period of frost-free weather and lots of sunlight.
  • Frost is a cotton plant's worst enemy, and growth is slowed when temperatures drop below 20 degrees Celsius.
  • It can be grown with irrigation in locations with lower rainfall (50-100 cm).
  • Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, and Rajasthan account for over 80% of all cotton-irrigated land.
  • High rainfall early in the season and bright, dry weather during the ripening period are both beneficial to a good crop.
  • It takes 6-8 months for it to mature.
  • Picking is a key period that necessitates a large amount of inexpensive and efficient labor, and it lasts for six months.
  • At the time of boll opening and plucking, wet weather and heavy rainfall are damaging, and the plant becomes subject to pests and disease.
NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY
DISEASES