• Brassicaceae is a family of Brassica plants.
  • Cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and mustards belong to the Brassica (Brassicaceae) family.
  • Oilseed brassica is grown throughout India, but it is most prevalent in four states (Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh).
  • Mustard seeds are in two colors one is white and another one is brown mustard seeds are approximately spherical in shape, finely pitted, odorless while whole, and spicy in flavor.
  • White mustard seeds are pale yellow in color and have a diameter of 2.5 mm (0.1 inches).
  • Brown mustard seeds are about the same size as white mustard seeds, but they are a darker yellow color.

• Soils- Sandy to heavy clay soil is suitable for the mustard crop but alluvial loam is the best soil for mustard cultivation.

• pH- 4.3 to 8.3.

• Temperature- 15° C to 25°C.

• Rainfall- Annual rainfall of more than 600-1000 mm.

• Climate- Cold weather.

  • Mustard is a crop that takes 110-120 days to mature. Mustard needs about 31-40 cm of water to grow.
  • The initial watering should be given around 30 days after seeding, at the blossoming stage.
  • The second irrigation should be given around 60-65 days after sowing, when the pods are starting to form.
  • Mustard is irrigated as a maincrop when planted as part of a mixed crop.
  • Pure mustard is cultivated as an unirrigated crop in several regions.
  • At the blooming and grain development stages, the Mustard crop is extremely vulnerable to a lack of soil moisture.
  • After 25 days of seeding, one irrigation is required.
  • The crop should be irrigated if it rains a few days before or after the scheduled irrigation time.
  • A good water drainage system is required in mustard crop fields.
  • The mustard plant is extremely sensitive to waterlogging.
  • If there is only one irrigation available, it should be applied 30 to 35 days after sowing.
  • A good seedbed was essential for successful crop germination.
  • Do two to three ploughings of the soil, followed by two harrowings.
  • Planking should be done after each plowing.
  • Prepared a solid, moist, and consistent seedbed to aid in uniform seed germination.
  • The best time to plant Mustard is between September and October.
  • For consistent spacing, mix the seeds with fine sand.
  • Seeds should be sown at a maximum depth of 6 cm in the soil for improved germination.